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The green carbon copper zinc ore pendant is a convex surface gemstone set on yellow metal and matched with blue-green moonlight stone. The appearance of the central main stone is very attractive: it has the appearance of Malachite like grape globular structure, which is translucent to opaque fibrous structure. The bright blue-green of this mineral is the result of typical copper color. The refractive index of the sample is 1.63-1.75, and the refractometer has a flashing reaction of refractive index difference of carbonate. The back of the gemstone is tested with dilute hydrochloric acid to produce bubbles, which can prove that it is a carbonate gemstone. As the gemstone has been inlaid and opaque, the conventional gemological test method is limited. At this time, further tests are required to identify the gemstone. The X-ray fluorescence spectrum shows that the main components of the gemstone are zinc and copper, and there is a small amount of lead. The spectrum shows that its chemical composition is very close to green carbon copper zinc ore and water red zinc ore. because the copper content of the gemstone is very high, it supports that the gemstone is green carbon copper zinc ore (). This is the first time that green carbon steel zinc is used in jewelry. The green carbon steel zinc mineral is soft (Mohs hardness is 1-2 degrees) and brittle. Traces of repair can be seen on the jewelry. A small piece of peeling can be seen on the top of the convex and round gems, leaving traces of glue. There is a kind of green convex gemstone in the Indian market which is sold at the price of emerald. However, its appearance is quite different from that of emerald. When you zoom in, you can see the granular to flake structure. Moreover, this material is composed of many minerals, and you can see different shades of green. The specific gravity of this convex gemstone is 2.89. Because of its polycrystalline structure, the specific gravity is not enough to be the main basis for identification. Therefore, this gemstone is studied with newer technology. Raman spectroscopy was used to test 5 points on the gemstone. The results showed that Muscovite produced different green tones. In order to explore the cause of green, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to analyze. Finally, it was shown that it combined a large amount of silicon, aluminum, potassium and a small amount of calcium, strontium, iron and chromium. The green color of mica is caused by the presence of chromium element, so it should belong to chromite mica type mineral. This mineral agglomerate is composed of crystals with strong polychromatic colors in different directions, thus resulting in a green appearance with different hues. This convex gemstone contains rare orange and white veins, which is known by Raman spectrum analysis. They are rutile and dolomite. At the bottom, it can be observed that the outer ring has a relatively saturated green color circle. This phenomenon is likely to be green joban oil. After the infrared ray spectrum test, it is determined that this gemstone has been soaked in oil. Three unusual synthetic rubies, weighing 3.21 carats, 4.49 carats and 7.61 carats respectively, were detected in the Gulin laboratory, Switzerland. Through magnification observation, it can be seen that the flux is distributed along the gap, and the needle like inclusions are distributed in a linear manner. The X-ray fluorescence spectrum analysis shows that it contains 0.54% - 0.92% Cr2O3, 0.06% - 0.11% te2o3 and 0.01% - 0.03% Ga2O3 by weight. The content of titanium and vanadium is too low to be measured. In addition, it also contains 0.02% - 0.03% zirconia ZrO2, which is irrelevant to the contents. In addition, the gemstone does not contain other heavy metal elements, such as aluminum or tungsten. The internal growth structure of flux residue and the weight percent concentration of trace elements were analyzed. We can know that these gems are flux synthetic rubies. However, the overall characteristics of this batch of synthetic rubies are somewhat different from those of common synthetic rubies. It has similar oblique dot like and linear inclusions (commonly known as "raindrop like" inclusions) to the synthetic ruby produced by Kashan, and any commercially produced synthetic ruby does not contain zirconia; Zirconia is occasionally contained in natural ruby, but it is always related to zircon crystal. Moreover, this batch of gems contains calcium and iron, but lacks titanium and vanadium. This is very unusual in the synthesis of ruby by flux method. Usually, lead or tungsten and other heavy metals are often seen in the synthetic ruby of Chatham, Douros or ramaura, but not found in this batch of synthetic gems. Although it is not clear whether these synthetic rubies belong to new synthetic gems, this batch of unusual synthetic rubies can still be judged as synthetic gems by the presence of flux under the hand-held magnifying glass or microscope. Chemical analysis can detect the presence of zirconium and the distribution of other trace elements to determine their synthetic and natural identity. Since 1880, when the diffusion treatment sapphire technology was disclosed, the identification community generally believed that the blue color was caused by the titanium element diffused into the surface of gemstones, and there were also experiments in which cobalt element replaced titanium element for diffusion treatment. The blue color of this gemstone is very touching, but the blue color processed by this diffusion technology is very thin. It is very difficult to see under the 60x magnifying glass, so we have never seen such products appear on the market. Not long ago, two blue sapphires weighing 2.23 carats and 2.74 carats respectively were sent to GIA gemstone identification center. Among them, the 2.74 carat sapphires have the following characteristics: the color is obviously concentrated on the ridge line of the gemstone facet in diiodiomethane, and the uneven block color indicates that it is a sapphire after diffusion treatment; Another 2.34-carat sapphire is darker and more bright than the former in appearance. The refractive index is beyond the index limit. Under the table type spectroscope, three typical wide absorption bands due to the drilling element can be seen. No inclusions can be seen in the enlarged observation. However, there are numerous small spots near the surface, and the color of some faceted edges is pale. Because the emissivity of the carved gemstone is much higher than expected, it is found that a large amount of cobalt is concentrated on the surface of the gemstone by Raman microspectral analysis. Obviously, the high refractive index of gems is caused by cobalt. This phenomenon is particularly easy to appear on the red corundum gems treated by thermal diffusion. In addition, it is also common on topaz, which is blue-green due to the presence of cobalt impurities on the surface. This topaz is often suspected to have undergone diffusion treatment, but it is impossible to determine whether it has undergone diffusion treatment. Like topaz, the blue surface layer on the surface of this 2.23-carat sapphire is almost invisible. It is so thin that even a small notch or fine scratch can expose the colorless area inside the sapphire. Therefore, it is impossible to confirm whether the sapphire has been processed or has only produced some surface reaction with cobalt. This sapphire has raised many questions, and it is uncertain whether such gems have entered the market in large quantities. Irradiated chameleon fluorspar in AGTA jewelry exhibition in 2002, a batch of irradiated chameleon fluorspar attracted great interest. The original stone of this fluorite is produced in Minas Province, Brazil. It is light yellow before irradiation treatment. After irradiation treatment, this gemstone will change color, showing dark blue under sunlight type light source and red purple under incandescent light source. According to the determination of standard gemology, the specific gravity of this gemstone is 3.19 and the refractive index is 1.431. It has no fluorescence reaction under long wave ultraviolet light and short wave ultraviolet light, and has moderate pseudo birefringence reaction. The 570nm absorption line can be seen under the desktop spectrometer, and it is red under the Charles color filter. Under the microscope, it can be found that it contains two-phase inclusions. No browning test was conducted in the laboratory, but the irradiated fluorspar displayed in the jewelry exhibition did not fade in a few days. Fluorspar has been treated by irradiation technology for many years, but the special feature of this irradiation treatment of fluorspar lies in its gorgeous body color and discoloration. Imitation starlight gems in recent years, a fake method of imitating starlight gems with directional artificial marks is often applied to convex gems, but this fake method is very easy to identify. First of all, this kind of gemstone lacks directionally arranged inclusions; Secondly, directional scratches are common on the surface of gemstones. In addition, the star line morphology of these starlight gems is incomplete, irregular or incorrect, as well as curved and asymmetric, and some of them have star line numbers inconsistent with the mineral crystal system. When taking photos of these gems. Another method helpful to identify these artificial starlight phenomena has been found: when shooting artificial starlight gems, focus the camera under the surface of convex gems. At this time, the starlight phenomenon is most clear. When shooting natural starlight gems, the focus of the camera is focused on the surface of the convex gems.
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